Thanks to our member Center for the Study of Democracy (CSD), Sofia, BG.
Here you have a list of International Instruments, treaties and mechanisms to tackle Terrorism caused by Radicalisation and Violent Extremist Behaviours.
- Draft Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism, adopted by the League of Nations in 1937, never came into effect in practice. Full text is available at https://www.wdl.org/en/item/11579/.
Legally Binding Instruments
- Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts on Board Aircraft (Tokyo Convention), adopted in 1963. Full text is available at https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/List%20of%20Parties/Tokyo_EN.pdf.
- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Tokyo Hijacking Convention), adopted in 1970. Full text is available at https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/List%20of%20Parties/Tokyo_EN.pdf.
- Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, adopted in 1971. Full text is available at https://www.icao.int/secretariat/legal/List%20of%20Parties/Mtl71_EN.pdf.
- European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, adopted in 1977. Full text is available at https://rm.coe.int/16800771b2.
- International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, adopted in 1979. Full text is available at https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-5&chapter=18&lang=en.
- International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, adopted in 1997. Full text is available at https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-9&chapter=18&clang=_en.
- International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, adopted in 1999. Full text is available at https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-11&chapter=18&lang=en.
- Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, adopted in 2005. Full text is available at https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetailsIII.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVIII-15&chapter=18&Temp=mtdsg3&clang=_en.
- United Nations Security Council Anti-Terrorism Resolution 1373 (Creation of Counter-Terrorism Committee – CTC), adopted in 2001. Calls for suppressing terrorism financing and improving international cooperation. Full text is available at https://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/terrorism/res_1373_english.pdf.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1377: Ministerial Declaration on Global Effort to Combat Terrorism, adopted in 2001. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/1377.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1456: Declaration by Foreign Ministers on Combatting Terrorism, adopted in 2003. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/1456.
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540: Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, adopted in 2004. Full text is available at https://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/1540(2004).
- United Nations Security Council Resolution 1624: Prohibition of Incitement to Commit Terrorist Acts, adopted in 2005. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/1624.
- UN Security Council Resolution 2178: Addressing the Issue of Foreign Terrorist Fighters, adopted in 2014. Condemns violent extremism. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2178.
- UN Security Council Resolution 2341: Protection of Critical Infrastructure, adopted in 2017. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2341.
- UN Security Council Resolution 2354: Countering Terrorist Narratives, adopted in 2017. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2354.
- UN Security Council Resolution 2370: Preventing Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons, adopted in 2017. Full text is available at https://undocs.org/S/2017/375.
- UN Security Council Resolution 2396: Threats to International Peace and Security Caused by Returning Foreign Terrorist Fighters, adopted in 2017. Full text is available at http://unscr.com/en/resolutions/doc/2396.
High-Level Strategic Documents
- United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy – adopted on 8 September 2006. The Strategy is based on four pillars:
- Addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism.
- Measures to:
- prevent and combat terrorism;
- build states’ capacity to prevent and combat terrorism and to strengthen the role of the United Nations system in that regard;
- ensure respect for human rights for all and the rule of law as the fundamental basis for the fight against terrorism.
The Strategy is being reviewed every 2 years.
- Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism – proposed in a Report of the Secretary General on 24 December 2015. The Plan examines the context and drivers of violent extremism. As regards the conditions and structural context of violent extremism, it highlights the following aspects:
- Lack of socioeconomic opportunities.
- Marginalization and discrimination.
- Poor governance, violations of human rights and the rule of law.
- Prolonged and unresolved conflicts.
- Radicalization in prisons.
As regards, the process of radicalisation, the Plan highlights the following aspects:
- Individual backgrounds and motivations.
- Collective grievances and victimization.
- Distortion and misuse of beliefs, political ideologies and ethnic and cultural differences.
- Leadership and social networks.
- European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy – adopted in 2005. The Strategy comprises 4 pillars:
- European Council Framework Decision on Combating Certain Forms and Expressions of Racism and Xenophobia by Means of Criminal Law – adopted on 28 November 2008. The Framework Decision provides for the approximation of laws and regulations of EU countries on offences involving certain manifestations of racism and xenophobia. Certain serious manifestations of racism and xenophobia must constitute an offence in all EU countries and be punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties.
- European Union Internal Security Strategy – adopted in 2010. The Strategy specifies 5 main objectives among which is to prevent terrorism and address radicalisation and recruitment through:
- Empowering communities to prevent radicalisation and recruitment: an EU radicalisation-awareness network is to be created, a ministerial conference on the prevention of radicalisation and recruitment is to be organised, and a handbook to support EU countries actions is to be drawn up;
- Cutting off terrorists’ access to funding and material and following their transactions: a framework for freezing assets and for preventing and combating terrorism is to be established, legislative and non-legislative action is to be taken to implement the action plans on explosives and on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances, and policy for the extraction and analysis of financial messaging data in the EU is to be set out;
- Protecting transport: the EU regime for aviation and maritime security is to be further developed.
- European Parliament Resolution on the Prevention of Radicalisation and Recruitment of European Citizens by Terrorist Organisations – adopted on 23 November 2015. The Resolution specifically refers to the issue of preventing violent extremism and radicalisation in prisons. In this regard, the Resolution, inter alia:
- Supports the introduction of specialised training for all prison staff, as well as partners operating in the penal system, religious staff and NGO personnel who interact with prisoners.
- Encourages the establishment of educational programmes with adequate funding in European prisons in order to promote critical thinking, religious tolerance, and reintegration into society of inmates, but also to offer special assistance to those who are young, vulnerable or more susceptible to radicalisation and recruitment by terrorist organisations.
- Communication from the Commission on Supporting the Prevention of Radicalisation leading to Violent Extremism – issued on 14 June 2016. Section 3 titled Breaking the cycle: addressing radicalisation in prisons specifically focuses on the challenge of countering radicalisation in prisons.
- Council of Europe Handbook for Prison and Probation Services Regarding Radicalisation and Violent Extremism – issued on 1 December 2016. The purpose of this Handbook is to provide specific directions and suggested recommendations to achieve good practises in the risk assessment, management and re-integration of radicalised offenders. It provides practical information consistent with the importance of tailored risk assessments and interventions and the use of good prison and probation management principles pertaining to violent extremist offenders.
Therefore, the long-term strategy of both prison and probation services should be the prevention of violent extremist offenders reoffending, the prevention of radicalisation in prison and probation settings and the establishment of a long term preventative strategy within the criminal justice system.
- Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on the Prevention of Radicalisation leading to Violent Extremism – adopted on 15 December 2016.
- Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) – tasked with monitoring the implementation of UNSC Resolution 1373 (2001).
- Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) – established under UNSC Resolution 1535 that was adopted in 2004 to assist the work of the CTC and coordinate the process of monitoring the implementation of Resolution 1373 (2001).
- United Nations Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) – established in 2005 by the UN Secretary General. The mandate of the CTITF is to strengthen coordination and coherence of counter-terrorism efforts of the United Nations system. The Task Force consists of 38 international entities which by virtue of their work have a stake in multilateral counter-terrorism efforts. Each entity makes contributions consistent with its own mandate.
- United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre – established in 2011. The UNCCT provides capacity-building assistance to Member States and carries out counter-terrorism projects around the world in line with the four pillars of the Global Strategy.
- United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) – established in 2017 by UN General Assembly. The office aims to have a close relationship with Security Council bodies and Member States, strengthening existing and developing new partnerships.
- European Commission Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN) – RAN is a network of frontline or grassroots practitioners from around Europe who work daily with people who have already been radicalised, or who are vulnerable to radicalisation.
More specifically, practitioners include police and prison authorities, but also those who are not traditionally involved in counter-terrorism activities, such as teachers, youth workers, civil society representatives, local authorities’ representatives and healthcare professionals.
- INTERPOL Counter-Terrorism Fusion Centre (CTF) – investigates the organisational hierarchies, training, financing, methods and motives of terrorist groups.